The Chinese Midden Crab - Eriocheir sinensis

 

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SPECIES DIRECTORY

 

Biotic homogenisation in Germany has probably been occurring over millennia, yet the long history of human invasion and trade blurs the distinction between native and alien species. Thus the origin of many species introduced in historical times is uncertain and especially so for aquatic habitats, where often the status and origin of species is unknown.

Therefore, we only qualified as aliens such species which have been directly or indirectly introduced by man into German waters after the year 1492 (= Discovery of America by Columbus). The few species identified recently as introduced before 1492, also denoted as archaeobiota - archaeophytes / archaeomycetes / archaeozoans (e.g., soft clam Mya areanaria, common carp Cyprinus caprio) were thus excluded from the list of aliens.

 

The number of aquatic alien taxa assumed to have been estabilshed in German waters since 1492 recently amounts to about 141 species. The majority of aliens are benthic macroinvertebrates (77), primarily crustaceans, molluscs, polychaetes and hydroids. Introduced macrophytes comprise of 24 taxa, mostly macroalgae and waterweeds. Among vertebrates, fishes are the dominant group, at least fifteen species have settled permanently. Many of the alien species are at least locally abundant and about every second alien species has spread successfully across a larger area yet.

It is noticeable that certain taxonomical groups, such as Cladocera, Nemertini, Oligochaeta and Tardigrada, lack representatives among the introduced species reported for German waters. This is probably related to very strong problems in identification down to species level of specimens of these groups. The only exception is the alien freshwater oligochaet Branchiura sowerbyi, which can easily be differentiated from other oligochaets and especially tubificids through the presence of gills. In macroinvertebrate surveys, such representatives were generally identified only to class or subfamily level, which is in accordance with accepted national and international conventions. That’s why one can assume an ‘intentional’ overlook of an indefinite number of aquatic alien species worldwide until today.

The directory presented hereafter lists all aquatic alien species that are introduced after 1492 and known to live permanent in German waters. The directory will be continuously updated. Comments, corrections, or additions are very appreciated.

NOTE: For more information in detail several species are linked to species-specific pdf-files.

 

Updated: 24-02-2014

 

 

Soft clam - Mya arenaria

A marine archaeozoan: The soft clam Mya arenaria - probably introduced by the Vikings to Europe from America as early as 1245.

 

Established aquatic alien species in inland waters and on the North and Baltic Sea coasts of Germany.

Origin: known or probable area of origin

Vector: known or probable vector of introduction: un  unintentional, in  intentional

Date: first record in the wild

Distribution:occurring at one or a few localities, ++  in part of the area, +++  throughout the area

Status:  X  an invasive alien species which threatens ecosystems, habitats or species (sensu CBD) (Black List)

            (X)  a potential invasive alien species (Grey List)

Taxon

Origin

Vector

 

 

Date

Distribution

Sta-

Key

 

 

 

   

 

 

inland waters

North Sea coast

Baltic Sea coast

tus

 Ref.

PHYTOPLANKTON

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dinophyceae

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gymnodinium mikimotoi Miyake & Kominami

Pacific

un

ocean shipping ship

ballast water

1966

 

+++

 

 

4,8

Thecadinium yashimaense Yoshimatsu et al. Pacific un released aquaculture oyster 2002   ++     33

Raphidophyceae

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chattonella antiqua Ono

? Pacific

un ocean shipping ship

ballast water

1991

 

++

 

(X)

4

Chattonella marina Hara & Chihara

? Pacific

un ocean shipping ship

ballast water

1991

 

++

 

(X)

4

Fibrocapsa japonica Toriumi & Takano

? Pacific

un ocean shipping ship

ballast water

1992

 

+++

 

X

4,8

Bacillariophyceae

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coscinodiscus wailesii Gran & Angst

Indo-Pacific

un

released aquaculture

oyster

1977

 

+++

++

X

4,8

Odontella (Biddulphia) sinensis Grunow

Indo-Pacific

un ocean shipping ship

ballast water

1903

 

+++

++

 

4,8

Thalassiosira punctigera Hasle

Indo-Pacific

un

released aquaculture

oyster

1978

 

+++

++

 

4,8

SUM

 

 

   

 

 

0

8

3

 

 

MACROPHYTES

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pteridophyta

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Azollaceae

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Azolla filiculoides Lamk.

S America

in

released ornamental trade

pond

1980s

+

 

 

 X

11

Spermatophyta

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alismataceae

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sagittaria latifolia Willd.

N America

in

released ornamental trade

pond

1952

+

 

 

 

11

Apiaceae

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.fil.

N America

in

released ornamental trade

pond

2004

+

 

 

 X

11

Crassulaceae

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crassula helmsii Cockayne

Australia

in

released ornamental trade

pond

1980s

+

 

 

 X

2, 11

Hydro-charitaceae

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Egeria densa Planchon.

S America

in

released ornamental trade

aquarium

1980s

+

 

 

 

11

Elodea canadensis Michaux

N America

in

released ornamental trade

pond

1859

+++

 

 

X

2, 11

Elodea nuttallii St. John

N America

in

released ornamental trade

pond

1953

+++

 

 

X

2, 11

Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) Moss
S Africa

in

released ornamental trade

aquarium

1970

+

 

 

 X

11

Vallisneria spiralis L.

N America

in

released ornamental trade

aquarium

1966

+

 

 

 (X)

11

Lemnaceae

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lemna minuscola Herter

N America

in

released ornamental trade

pond

1983

++

 

 

 

2

Lemna turionifera Lanolt

N America

in

released ornamental trade

pond

1965

++

 

 

 

2

Haloragaceae

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Myriophyllum aquaticum Verdcourt

S America

in

released ornamental trade

aquarium

1980s

+

 

 

 X

11

Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michaux

N America

in

released ornamental trade

aquarium

1962

+

 

 

 X

2

Onagraceae

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ludwigia grandiflora (Michaux) Greuter & Burdet

S America

in

released ornamental trade

pond

2004

 

 

X

40

Ludwigia x kentiana E.J. Clement hybrid in released ornamental trade

pond

1984 +     X 48

Poaceae

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spartina anglica Hubbard

hybrid

in

released planting

 

1927

 

+++

 

X

4,9

Macroalgae

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Phaeophyceae

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fucus evanescens C. Agardh

N Pacific

un ocean shipping ship

hull

1924

 

 

+

 

7

Sargassum muticum Fensholt

N Pacific

un

released aquaculture

oyster

1988

 

++

 

X

4,9

Rhodophyceae

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bonnemaisonia hamifera Hariot

N Pacific

un

released aquaculture

oyster

1959

 

+

 

 

4,8

Compsopogon hookeri (Montagne)

India

in

released ornamental trade

pond

1966

+       11

Dasya baillouviana Montagne

W Atlantic

un

released aquaculture

oyster

1960s

 

+

 +

 

4,8, 22

Gracilaria vermiculophylla

Pacific

un

released aquaculture

oyster

2002

 

++

 +

 X

12, 22

Polysiphonia harveyi Bailey

N Pacific

un

released aquaculture

oyster

1960s

 

+

 

 

4,8

Chlorophyceae

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides Silva

N Pacific

un

released aquaculture

oyster

1930

 

+

 

 

4,8

SUM

 

 

   

 

 

16

7

3

 

 

ZOOPLANKTON

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ctenophora                      

Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz

W Atlantic un ocean shipping ship ballast water 2006   + ++ (x) 29

Crustacea

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acartia tonsa Dana

Pacific / W Atlantic

un ocean shipping ship

ballast water

1931

 

+++

+++

 

4,7

Ameira divagans Nicholls

W Atlantic

un ocean shipping ship

ballast water

1970s

 

 

++

 

7

Cercopagis pengoi (Ostroumov)

Ponto-Caspian

un canal ship

ballast water

2004

 

 

+

 

7, 18

Skistodiaptomus pallidus (Herrick)

N America

un ocean shipping ship

ballast water

2010

 +

 

 

 

38

 SUM

 

 

   

 

 

1

2

4

 

 

MACROZOOBENTHOS

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Porifera

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eunapius carteri (Bowerbank)

Africa / Asia

un

released ornamental trade

aquarium

1993

+

 

 

 

10

Hydrozoa

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bimeria franciscana (Torrey)

? Indo-Pacific

un ocean shipping ship

hull

1952

 

+

 

 

4

Cordylophora caspia (Pallas)

Ponto-Caspian

un canal ship

hull

1858

+++

++

++

 (X)

3,4,

10

Craspedacustra sowerbyi Lankester

E Asia

un

released ornamental trade

aquarium

1923

++

 

 

 

10

Nemopsis bachei Agassiz

W Atlantic

un ocean shipping ship

hull

1942

 

+

 

 

4

Anthozoa

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diadumene cincta (Stephenson)

Pacific

un

released aquaculture

oyster

1928

 

+

 

 

4

Bivalvia

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Congeria leucophaeta (Conrad)

E Atlantic

un ocean shipping ship

hull

1928

+

+

+

 

4,7, 10

Corbicula fluminalis (O.F. Müller)

E Asia

un ocean shipping ship

ballast water

1984

++

++

 

X

4, 10

Corbicula fluminea (O.F. Müller)

Asia

un ocean shipping ship

ballast water

1987

++

 

 

X

10

Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg)

Pacific

in

escaped aquaculture

 

1984

 

+++

 

X

4,9

Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas)

Ponto-Caspian

un canal ship

hull

1824

+++

+

++

X

3,4, 10

Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (Andrusov)

Ponto-Caspian

un canal ship

hull

2007

+

 

 

(X)

34

Ensis americanus (Binney)

W Atlantic

un ocean shipping ship

ballast water

1979

 

+++

++

X

3,4, 9

Musculium transversum (Say)

N America

in

released ornamental trade

aquarium

1993 +       1

Petricola pholadiformis Lamarck

W Atlantic

un

released aquaculture

oyster

1896

 

+++

+

 

3,4

Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea) E Asia

in

released ornamental trade

pond

1999 +       28

Teredo navalis Linnaeus

Indo-Pacific

un ocean shipping ship

hull

<1800

 

+

++

(X)

7,8

Unio mancus Lamarck

S Europe

un canal ship

hull

about 1922

+

 

 

 

10

Gastropoda

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crepidula fornicata (Linnaeus)

W Atlantic

un

released aquaculture

oyster

1934

 

+++

 

(X) 

4,9

Emmericia patula (Brumati) S Europe

in

released ornamental trade

aquarium

1960 +       1

Gyraulus chinensis (Dunker)

E Asia

in

released ornamental trade

aquarium

1985

+

 

 

 

44

Gyraulus parvus (Say)

N America

in

released ornamental trade

aquarium

1981

+

 

 

 

1

Lithoglyphus naticoides (C. Pfeiffer)

E Europe

un canal ship

hull

1883

++

 

 

 

10

Menetus dilatatus (Gould)

N America

in

released ornamental trade

aquarium

1980

+

 

 

 

1

Physella acuta (Draparnaud)

SW Europe

in

released ornamental trade

aquarium

1904

+++

 

 

 

10

Physella heterostropha (Say)

N America

in

released ornamental trade

aquarium

about 1983

+

 

 

 

45

Planorbella duryi (Weatherby)

N America

in

released ornamental trade

aquarium

1980s

+

 

 

 

1

Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray)

S Pacific

un ocean shipping ship

ballast water

1900

+++

++

++

 (X)

3,4, 10

Viviparus ater (de Cristofori & Jan)

S Europe

in released stocking

 

1980

+

   

 

43

Platyhelminthes

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dendrocoelum romanodanubiale (Codreanu)

Ponto-Caspian

un canal ship

hull

1992

+

 

 

 

10

Dugesia tigrina (Girard)

N America

un

released ornamental trade

aquarium

1931

+++

 

 

 

10

Kamptozoa

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Urnatella gracilis Leidy

N America

un ocean shipping ship

ballast water

1960

+

 

 

 

1

Oligochaeta

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Branchiura sowerbyi (Beddard)

S Asia

un

released ornamental trade

aquarium

1959

++

 

 

 

10

Polychaeta

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ficopomatus enigmaticus (Fauvel)

S Pacific

un ocean shipping ship

hull

1975

 

+

 

(X)

4,5

Hypania invalida (Grube)

Ponto-Caspian

un canal ship

hull

1995

++

 

 

(X)

10

Marenzelleria neglecta Sikorski & Bick

W Atlantic

un ocean shipping ship

ballast water

1985

 

++

+++

X

3,4, 21

Marenzelleria viridis Augener

N Atlantic

un ocean shipping ship

ballast water

1983

 

++

 +

X

4,5, 21

Crustacea

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz

Ponto-Caspian

in

released stocking

 

1910s

++

 

 

 

1

Atyaëphyra desmaresti Millet

Mediterr-anean

un canal migration

 

1932

++

 

 

 

10

Balanus improvisus Darwin

W Atlantic

un ocean shipping ship

hull

1858

 

++

+++

(X)

3,4

Caprella mutica Schurin

Pacific

un ocean shipping ship

hull ?

2004

 

+

 

 

13

Corophium curvispinum Sars

Ponto-Caspian

un canal ship

hull

1912

+++

+

+

X

3,4, 10

Corophium robustum Sars

Ponto-Caspian

un canal ship

hull

2002

+

 

 

 

14

Corophium sextonae Crawford

S Pacific

un ocean shipping ship

hull

1997

 

+

 

 

4

Crangonyx pseudogracilis Bousfield

N America

un

released stocking ?

decapoda

/ fish ?

1992

+

 

 

 

10

Dikerogammarus haemobaphes Eichwald

Ponto-Caspian

un canal ship

hull

1993

++

 

 

 

10

Dikerogammarus villosus (Sovinsky)

Ponto-Caspian

un canal ship

hull

1995

++

 

 

X

10

Echinogammarus berilloni (Catta)

Mediterr-anean

un canal ship

hull

1924

+

 

 

 

10

Echinogammarus ischnus Stebbing

Ponto-Caspian

un canal ship

hull

1977

++

 

 

 

10

Echinogammarus trichiatus (Martynov)

Ponto-Caspian

un canal ship

hull

2000

+

 

 

 

10

Elminius modestus Darwin

S Pacific

un ocean shipping ship

hull

1953

 

+++

 

(X)

4,8

Eriocheir sinensis Milne-Edwards

N Pacific

un ocean shipping ship

ballast water

1912

+++

++

++

X

3,4, 10

Gammarus tigrinus Sexton

W Atlantic

in

released stocking

 

1957

+++

++

+

 

3,4, 10

Hemigrapsus sanguineus (de Haan)

Asia

un

released aquaculture

oyster

2006   ++     35

Hemigrapsus cf. takanoi Asakura & Watanabe

Asia

un

released aquaculture

oyster

2007   ++     35

Hemimysis anomala Sars

Ponto-Caspian

un canal ship

hull

1997

+

 

 

 

10

Jaera istri Veuille

Ponto-Caspian

un canal ship

hull

1995

++

 

 

 

10

Limnomysis benedeni Czerniavsky

Ponto-Caspian

un canal ship

hull

1997

+

 

 

 

10

Melita nitida Smith W Atlantic un ocean shipping ship ballast water 2008     +   41

Obesogammarus crassus (Sars)

Ponto-Caspian

un canal ship

hull

2004

+

 

 

 

14

Obesogammarus obesus (Sars)

Ponto-Caspian

un canal ship

hull

2004

+

 

 

 

15

Orchestia cavimana Heller Ponto-Caspian un canal ship

hull

1920 +++       10

Orconectes immunis (Hagen)

N America

in

released ornamental trade

aquarium

1993

+

 

 

X

20, 32

Orconectes limosus (Rafinesque)

N America

in

released stocking

 

1890

+++

 

 

X

10

Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana

N America

in

released stocking

 

1980s

+

 

 

X

1, 23

Palaemon macrodactylus Rathbun East Asia un ocean shipping ship ballast water 2004   +     24

Pontogammarus robustoides (Sars)

Ponto-Caspian

un canal ship

hull

1991

+

 

+

 

3, 10

Proasellus coxalis (Dollfus)

Mediterr-anean

un canal ship

hull

about 1931

++

+

 

 

4, 10

Proasellus meridianus (Racovitza)

W Europe

un canal ship

hull

about 1930

++

 

 

 

10

Procambarus clarkii (Girard)

N America

in

released ornamental trade

aquarium

1990s

+

 

 

 X

1

Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould)

W Atlantic

un ocean shipping ship

hull

1936

 

++

++

 

3,4

Sinelobus stanfordi (Richardson)

? Pacific

un

ocean shipping

ship

ballast water

2009

 

+

 

 

39

Bryozoa

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pectinatella magnifica Leidy

N America

un ocean shipping ship

hull

1883

+

 

 

 

10

Tricellaria inopinata d'Hondt & Occhipinti Ambrogi

Pacific

un released aquaculture

oyster

2009

 

 

 

39

Victorella pavida Saville-Kent

? Indo-

Pacific

un ocean shipping ship

hull

1951

 

+

 

 

4,6

Ascidiacea

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Styela clava Herdman

N Pacific

un ocean shipping ship

hull

1997

 

+

 

(X)

4

Insecta

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Telmatogeton japonicas Tokunaga

Pacific

un ocean shipping ship

hull

1962

 

+

 +

 

39, 46

 SUM

 

 

   

 

 

52

33

17

 

 

FISHES

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ameiurus melas (Rafinesque)

N America

in

released stocking

 

1988

++

 

 

 X

2

Ameiurus nebulosus Lesueur

N America

in

released stocking

 

1890

++

 

 

 X

2

Carassius auratus (Linnaeus) Asia in released stocking pond

about 1860

++    

(X)

1
Coregonus maraenoides Polyakov E Europe in released stocking   1904 +    

 

30

Lepomis gibbosus Linnaeus

N America

in

released ornamental trade

pond

1896

+++

 

 

 (X)

2

Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Cantor)

Asia

in

released stocking   1990 +    

 

17
Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas) Ponto-Caspian un canal migration / (ship ?)

hull?

2008 +    

(X)

36
Neogobius kessleri (Günther) Ponto-Caspian un canal migration / (ship ?)

hull?

1999 +    

(X)

30, 36

Neogobius melanostomus Pallas

Ponto-Caspian un canal migration / (ship ?)

hull?

1998 +   + X 19, 36

Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

N America

in

released stocking   1887 +++     X 1, 31
Poecilia reticulata Peters S America

in

released ornamental trade

aquarium

about 1973 +       1

Proterorhinus semilunaris (Pallas)

Ponto-Caspian un canal migration / (ship ?)

hull?

1997 ++     (X) 16, 37

Pseudorasbora parva Bleeker

E Asia

in

released stocking

 

1984

+

 

 

(X)

2

Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill)

NE America

in

released stocking

 

1882

++

 

 

 (X)

2

Umbra pygmaea (DeKay)

N America

in

released ornamental trade

aquarium

about 1919

++

 

 

 

2

 SUM

 

 

   

 

 

15

0

1

 

 

AMPHIBIAN

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Caudata

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Triturus carnifex (Laurenti) S Europe in released stocking   about 1990 +    

X

42
Anura                      

Rana catesbeiana Shaw

N America

in

released ornamental trade

aquarium

1990s

+

 

 

X

1

 SUM

 

 

   

 

 

2

0

0

 

 

PARASITES

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fungi

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aphanomyces astaci Schikora

N America

un

released stocking

host

1864

+++

 

 

X

1

G3 Claviceps purpurea (Fries) Tulasne

N America

un

ocean shipping ship

ballast water

2011   +   X 47

Acanthocephala

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paratenuisentis ambiguus van Cleave

N America

un

released stocking

host

1987 ++       25

Platyhelminthes

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae (Yin & Sproston)

E Asia

un

released stocking

host

1980s +++       26

Pseudodactylogyrus bini (Kikuchi)

E Asia

un

released stocking

host

1980s +++       26

Nematoda

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anguillicola crassus Kuwahara et al.

E Asia

un

released stocking

host

1982

+++

+++

+++

X

1,4, 7

Annelida

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barbronia weberi Blanchard

S Asia

un

released

ornamental trade

aquarium

/ pond

1994

+

 

 

 

10

Caspiobdella fadejewi Epstein

Ponto-Caspian

un canal migration

host

1990s

+

 

 

 

10

Piscicola haranti Jarry

Ponto-Caspian

un canal migration

host

1990s

+

 

 

 

10

Xironogiton victoriensis Gelder & Hall

N America

un

released stocking

host

2003 +       27

 SUM

 

 

   

 

 

9

2

1

 

 

 Total number = 141

 

 

   

 

 

95

52

29

 

 

         

 

           

Key References

(1) Geiter, O., Homma, S. & Kinzelbach, R. (2002): Bestandsaufnahme und Bewertung von Neozoen in Deutschland. - Umweltbundesamt: Berlin, UBA Texte 25/02, 290 S.

(2) Kowarik, I. (2003): Biologische Invasionen - Neophyten und Neozoen in Mitteleuropa. - Ulmer: Stuttgart, 380 S.

(3) Nehring, S. (2000): Neozoen im Makrozoobenthos der deutschen Ostseeküste. - Lauterbornia 39: 117-126.

(4) Nehring, S. (2001): After the TBT era: Alternative anti-fouling paints and their ecological risks. - Senckenbergiana marit. 31: 341-351.

(5) Nehring, S. & Leuchs, H. (1999): Neozoa (Makrozoobenthos) an der deutschen Nordseeküste - Eine Übersicht. - Bundesanstalt für Gewässerkunde: Koblenz, Bericht BfG-1200, 131 S.

(6) Nehring, S. & Leuchs, H. (2000): Neozoen im Makrozoobenthos der Brackgewässer an der deutschen Nordseeküste. - Lauterbornia 39: 73-116.

(7) Olenin, S., Leppäkoski, E. & Daunys, D. (Eds.) (2004): Alien Species Directory. - Baltic Sea Alien Species Database, http://www.ku.lt/nemo/mainnemo.htm

(8) Reise, K., Gollasch, S. & Wolff, W.J. (2002): Introduced marine species of the North Sea coasts. - In: Leppäkoski, E., Gollasch, S. & Olenin, S. (Eds.): Invasive Aquatic Species of Europe - Distribution, Impacts and Management, S. 260-266. Kluwer: Dordrecht.

(9) Reise, K., Dankers, N. & Essink, K. (2005): Introduced species. - In: Essink, K., Dettmann, C., Farke, H., Laursen, K., Lüerßen, G., Marencic, H. & Wiersinga, W. (Eds.), Wadden Sea Quality Status Report 2004. Wadden Sea Ecosystem No. 19: 155-161.

(10) Tittizer, T., Schöll, F., Banning, M., Haybach, A. & Schleuter, M. (2000): Aquatische Neozoen im Makrozoobenthos der Binnenwasserstraßen Deutschlands. - Lauterbornia 39: 1-72.

(11) Hussner, A. (2005): Aquatische Neophyten in NRW. - http://www.aquatischeneophyten.de

(12) Nehls, unpublished.

(13) Schrey, I. & Buschbaum, C. (2006): Asiatische Gespensterkrebse (Caprella mutica) erobern das deutsche Wattenmeer. Natur- und Umweltschutz (Zeitschrift Mellumrat) 5: 26-30.

(14) Eggers, T.O. & Martens, A. (2004): Bestimmungsschlüssel der Süßwasser-Amphipoda (Crustacea) Deutschlands. - Lauterbornia 42: 1-68

(15) Nehring, S. (2005): Neozoa (Makrozoobenthos) in den deutschen Gewässern - Eine Einführung. - AeT umweltplanung Koblenz, http://www.neozoa.de

(16) Schadt, J. (2000): Neue Fischart im Main entdeckt: Marmorierte Grundel (Proterorhinos marmoratus). - Fischer & Teichwirt 6/2000: 217-218.

(17) Freyhof, J. & Korte, E. (2005): The first record of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus in Germany. - Journal of Fish Biology 66: 568–571.

(18) ICES (2005): Report of the Working Group on Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms. WGITMO Report 2005, ICES CM 2005/ACME:05 Ref. E.: 1-173.

(19) Winkler, H.M. (2006): Die Fischfauna der südlichen Ostsee. - Meeresangler-Magazin 16: 17-18..

(20) Hoffmann, M. pers. comm. in Geiter, O. (1998): Aktuelle Meldungen. - Neozoen Newsletter 2: 10.

(21) Sikorski, A.V. & Bick, A. (2004): Revision of Marenzelleria Mesnil, 1896 (Spionidae, Polychaeta). - Sarsia 89: 253-275.

(22) Schories, D. & Selig, U. (2006): Die Bedeutung eingeschleppter Arten (alien species) für die Europäische Wasserrahmenrichtlinie am Beispiel der Ostsee. - Rostock. Meeresbiolog. Beitr. 15: 147-158.

(23) Huber, M.G.J. & Schubart, C.D. (2005): Distribution and reproduktive biology of Austropotamobius torrentium in Bavaria and documentation of a contact zone with the alien crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. - Bull. Fr. Péche Piscic. 376/377: 759-776.

(24) Gonzáles-Ortegón, E., Cuesta, J.A. & Schubart, C.D. (2006): First report of the oriental shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus Rathbun, 1902 (Decapoda, Caridea, Palaemonidae) from German waters. - Helgol. Mar. Res., online first

(25) Taraschewski, H., Moravec, F., Lamah, T. & Anders, K. (1987): Distribution and morphology of two helminths recently introduced into European eel populations: Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda, Drancunculoidea) and Paratenuisentis ambiguus (Acanthocephala, Tenuisentidae). - Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 3: 167-176.

(26) Sures, B. & Streit, B. (2001): Eel parasite diversity and intermediate host abundance in the River Rhine, Germany. - Parasitology 123: 185-191.

(27) Martens, A., Grabow, K., Rapp, S. & Schoolmann, G. (2006): Der Krebsegel Xironogiton victoriensis wurde mit dem Signalkrebs Pacifastacus leniusculus auch nach Deutschland eingeschleppt (Annelida: Branchiobdellida; Crustacea: Astacidae). - Lauterbornia 58: 147-155.

(28) Schoolmann, G., Martens, A. & Grabow, K. (2006): Einschleppung und Verbreitung der Chinesischen Teichmuschel Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea) durch den Zoo- und Gartenfachhandel (Bivalvia: Unionidae). - Lauterbornia 58: 139-141.

(29) Javidpour, J., Sommer, U. & Shiganova, T. (2006): First record of Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz 1865 in the Baltic Sea. - Aquatic Invasions 1: 299-302.

(30) Hofer, B. (1905): Über die Einführung der Peipusseemaräne in Deutschland. - Allgemeine Fischerei-Zeitung 30: 203-204.

(31) Leuner, E., Klein, M., Bohl, E., Jungbluth, J.H., Gerber, J. & Groh, K. (2000): Ergebnisse der Artenkartierungen in den Fließgewässern Bayerns - Fische, Krebse, Muscheln. - Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten, RB-Nr. 08/00/78: 212 pp.

(32) Gelmar, C., Pätzold, F., Grabow, K. & Martens, A. (2006): Der Kalikokrebs Orconectes immunis am nördlichen Oberrhein: ein neuer amerikanischer Flusskrebs breitet sich schnell in Mitteleuropa aus (Crustacea: Cambaridae). - Lauterbornia 56: 15-25.

(33) Hoppenrath, M., Elbrächter, M., Halliger, H., Koeman, R.P.T., Krakhmalnyy, A., Surek, B., Erler, K. & Luckas, B. (2007): First records of the benthic, bloom-forming, non-toxic dinoflagellate Thecadinium yashimaense (Dinophyceae) in Europe: with special emphasis on the invasion in the North Sea. - Helgoland Marine Research 61: 157-165.

(34) van der Velde, G. & Platvoet, G. (2007): Quagga mussels Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (Andrusov, 1897) in the Main River (Germany). - Aquatic Invasions 2: 261-264.

(35) Borcherding, pers. comm.

(36) Stemmer, B. (2008): Flussgrundel im Rhein-Gewässersystem. - Natur in NRW 4/08: 57-60.

(37) Von Landwüst, C. (2006): Expansion of Proterorhinus marmoratus (Teleostei, Gobiidae) into the River Moselle (Germany). - Folia Zool. 55: 107-111.

(38) Brandorff, G.-O. (2011): The copepod invader Skistodiaptomus pallidus (Herrick, 1879) (Crustacea, Copepoda, Diaptomidae) from North America in water bodies of Bremen, northern Germany. - Aquatic Invasions 6 (Suppl. 1).

(39) Buschbaum, pers. comm.

(40) Nehring, S. & Kolthoff, D. (2011): The invasive water primrose Ludwigia grandiflora (Michaux) Greuter & Burdet (Spermatophyta: Onagraceae) in Germany: First record and ecological risk assessment. - Aquatic Invasions 6: 83-89.